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Nutritional Ingredients

Acetyl-l-carnitine

Found in Pinnaclife Multivitamin

General Info

Absorption

  • Acetyl-L-carnitine is readily absorbed from the middle section of the small intestine also known as the jejunum.
  • Dietary Origins

  • Small amounts of acetyl-L-carnitine occur naturally in the brain, muscle tissue, and other organs of animals, but the amounts are not sufficient to be able to provide therapeutic levels of this nutrient.
  • Overview

    Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is the acetylated ester of the amino acid L-carnitine. ALC is an amino acid that is produced naturally in the body, with the greatest amounts being found in the brain, male testicles, and muscles. ALC facilitates the production of energy from the use of fatty acids.

    Acetyl-L-carnitine is considered to be a cognitive enhancing nutrient. It has been shown to increase the production and release of acetylcholine in the brain. ALC has become recognized as a valuable nutrient in the prevention of brain aging. As people and animals age, there is a decrease in the production of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and in the number of NGF receptors. It has been also discovered that acetyl-L-carnitine may slow down and partially reverse both of these negative consequences of the aging process.

    Toxicities & Precautions

    There is no known toxicities or precautions associated with acetyl-L-carnitine.

    Functions in the Body

    Acetyl Donor

  • Furnishes acetyl groups for the production of acetyl-Coenzyme A from free coenzyme A.
  • Energy Production

  • Helps to transport fatty acids across cellular membranes into the mitochondria where they are used in the production of energy.
  • Improve Memory

  • Reported to aid in improvement of attention span, memory and mental performance in normal individuals as well as those with cognitive impairment.
  • Neurotransmitter

  • Enhances the release and synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in multiple areas of the brain such as the hippocampus and striatum.
  • Symptoms & Causes of Deficiency

    Acetyl-L-carnitine is naturally produced in the human body, and to date, no specific condition has been identified with a deficiency of ALC. However, based on what is known about acetyl-L-carnitine’s functions in the body, it is possible that a deficiency could contribute to cognitive decline, decreased energy production, depression, elevated blood lipids, and an increased rate of aging in various parts of the neuroendocrine system.

    Coenzyme Q10

    CoQ10 is included in Pinnaclife MultiVitamin

    General Info

    Absorption

  • Coenzyme Q10 is a fat-soluble substance. Absorption depends upon an individual’s fat digestion ability. Coenzyme Q10 is best absorbed if it is taken with a meal that contains fat so that fat digestion is initiated.
  • Dietary Origins

  • CoQ10 can be obtained from most meat sources, but the highest concentrations are found in organ meats including the brain, heart, liver, and kidneys. These organs have the highest concentration because they require the most CoQ10 to meet their high metabolic demands. Although coenzyme Q10 occurs in the cells of all plants and animals, dietary plant sources are not capable of providing adequate levels of this nutrient.
  • Overview

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an important nutrient produced in the body, so it is not considered to be a true vitamin. It plays a central role in cellular energy production making it an essential compound for all cells. In fact, CoQ10 is also called “ubiquinone” because the compound is ubiquitous to all living things. There are 10 coenzyme Q compounds that occur throughout nature, but only coenzyme Q10 is synthesized in humans. CoQ10 is concentrated in the tissues and organs with the highest metabolic demands and oxidative stress such as the heart, brain, kidney, liver, lungs, retinas, and pancreas. Natural production and dietary intake do not provide enough coenzyme Q10 to treat deficiency or have therapeutic benefits. Although coenzyme Q10 is widely used throughout Europe and Asia, its value is just beginning to be recognized in the United States.

    Toxicities & Precautions

    General

  • No studies have reported toxicity or adverse side effects.
  • Health Conditions

  • Patients who are taking medications for various forms of cardiovascular disease should be closely monitored, since medications like statins deplete CoQ10.
  • Functions in the Body

    Cardiovascular Disease

  • CoQ10 has proven to be a vital ingredient in the health of the cardiovascular system as well as an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases.
  • Energy Production

  • Plays a central role in the production of energy within the mitochondria. It is the coenzyme enzymes that are involved in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is the high-energy fuel for all living cells. CoQ10 is a necessary component in Complex I, II, and III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain which explains why CoQ10 plays such a critical role in energy production.
  • Important Antioxidant

  • This fat-soluble antioxidant protects cellular membranes throughout the body from oxidative damage. It is uniquely able to live in the mitochondrial cell membranes where it provides protection from mitochondrial free radical damage.
  • Periodontal Disease

  • Adequate levels of CoQ10 are required for the health of gingival tissues and that gingival deficiencies of CoQ10 may influence periodontal disease.
  • Protection from Drug-induced depletion

  • Helps to protect against the side effects of numerous classes of drugs, many of which cause drug-induced depletions of CoQ10.
  • Symptoms & Causes of Deficiency

    CoQ10 is predominantly found in meat, so vegetarians or those with limited intake of meat likely require supplementation. The body’s cells manufacture the majority of CoQ10. The biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10 is a 17-step process that requires the following nutrients: riboflavin (B2), niacinamide (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), cobalamin (B12), folic acid, vitamin C, and numerous other trace elements. Consequently, there are many ways the complex synthesis of coenzyme Q10 can be interrupted. It also requires an enzyme called HMG-CoA Reductase that is also responsible for producing cholesterol and therefore a target for the cholesterol-lowering statin drugs. This means that people using statin drugs are not only blocking their production of cholesterol, but also blocking the production of CoQ10.

    It is probable that a large amount of people with health problems are suffering from a coenzyme Q10 deficiency due to inadequate dietary intake of the necessary nutrients and/or ingestion of one or more drugs that interrupt the synthesis of coenzyme Q10. The symptoms of coenzyme Q10 deficiency include: angina, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies, congestive heart failure, generalized weakening of the immune system, high blood pressure, lack of energy, gingivitis, and stroke. CoQ10 is intimately involved in the production of energy, a deficiency of CoQ10 first affects the heart and cardiovascular system because the heart is the most energy demanding muscle in the human body.

    Glycine

    Glycine is an essential component of Olivamine 10 Max and found in all McCord Supplements.

    General Info

    Absorption

  • Glycine is readily absorbed from within the small intestine.
  • Dietary Origins

  • It is considered to be the most widely available amino acid in the body. The best dietary food sources include fish, meats, and dairy products.
  • Overview

    Glycine is an amino acid and an important building block of proteins, enzymes, and connective tissues like collagen.

    Glycine plays an important role in cellular metabolism and protects ATP-depleted cells by low affinity interactions with multimeric channel proteins. Glycine provided during ATP depletion blocked the development of membranous pores completely. The relationship between necrosis and an extra-cellular depletion of ATP makes its protection and restoration imperative during the prelethal stages of necrosis (non-programmed cell death) or early necrosis.

    Toxicities & Precautions

    General

  • There are no known toxicities associated with glycine.
  • Side Effects

  • Very high doses of glycine have been associated with fatigue.
  • Functions in the Body

    Cellular Health

  • Protects ATP-depleted cells by blocking the development of membranous pores.
  • Antioxidant

  • Glycine is essential for the production of glutathione, one of the most important cellular antioxidants
  • Enhance Energy

  • Proper amounts produce more energy by improving blood-sugar storage.
  • Nervous System

  • It is necessary for proper central nervous system function.
  • Symptoms & Causes of Deficiency

    Based on what is known about glycine it may be speculated that a deficiency may cause improper central nervous system function, reduction in energy, low glutathione levels and increased risk of free radical damage to cells.

    Hydroxytyrosol

    Hydroxytyrosol is an essential component of Olivamine 10 and included in all McCord Supplements

    General Info

    Absorption

  • Hydroxytyrosol is a tiny fraction extracted from the outer membrane of the green olive and from the olive leaf. Absorption occurs in the stomach and from within the small intestine, and colon through diffusion.
  • Dietary Origins

  • The main source of hydroxytyrosol is the green olive. Hydroxytyrosol is recovered during the rinsing of the green olives, in the first stage of processing. The tiny fraction is carefully preserved through patented filtration processes. Since most of the hydroxtyrosol is removed in the earliest process only a small fraction of hydroxytyrosol can be found in extra virgin olive oil.
  • Overview

    Hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol: DOPET) is a tiny fraction of the green olive found on the fruit’s outer skin and in the olive leaf. It is one of the most potent antioxidants ever discovered. It has been shown to pass into the cell’s nuclear envelope and activate the MnSOD gene. This activation has proven to enhance MnSOD activity 5-fold. MnSOD is required to protect mitochondria from free radical damage thus protecting the cell from premature death. Hydroxytyrosol also passes the blood brain barrier where it serves as a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

    Toxicities & Precautions

    General

  • There are no known toxicities or precautions associated with hydroxytyrosol.
  • Health Conditions

  • Individuals sensitive to olive products should use caution.
  • Side Effects

  • Recommend doses are reported safe with no known side effects.
  • Functions in the Body

    Heart Health

  • This antioxidant has been shown to aid in a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease by preventing low-density lipoprotein oxidation.
  • Neurodegenerative Disorders

  • A powerful antioxidant that is rapidly absorbed, and capable of passing the blood brain barrier in relative large amounts. Therefore, it may be very useful in the treatment of oxidative stress associated with neurodegenerative disease.
  • Oxidative damage

  • Believed to be one of the most potent free radical scavenging antioxidant, and activates some of the cells most important intrinsic antioxidant systems.
  • Anticancer effects

  • Numerous studies have shown positive effects against multiple forms of cancer, with evidence that hydroxytyrosol can help support healthy cells while selectively killing cancer cells
  • Symptoms & Causes of Deficiency

    Since hydroxytyrosol is not an essential nutrient there are no known deficiencies. However based on what is known about hydroxytyrosol and diets high in this potent antioxidant, it is believed that supplementation with hydroxytyrosol can have positive health benefits because of it’s effects on innate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory systems.

    Magnesium

    Found in Sleep Support, Brain Health, Mood Support, Joint Health, and Pinnaclife D3+Magnesium

    General Info

    Absorption

  • Magnesium is absorbed primarily from the middle and lowest divisions of the small intestine per two methods; One is a carrier-mediated process that operates when magnesium levels are low. The other is a simple diffusion process that occurs when magnesium levels are high.
  • Dietary Origins

  • The magnesium content in foods varies widely, as does the soil content of magnesium leading to varied levels in produce. Good food sources include cereal grains, dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, and nuts. Food processing is a major cause of magnesium depletion. Up to 85 percent of magnesium is lost when whole wheat is refined to produce white flour. Poor food choices, alcohol abuse, excess calcium intake, intestinal malabsorption, certain medications, liver and kidney disease, and diabetes can also cause deficiencies.
  • Overview

    Magnesium is a cofactor in over 300 enzymatic reactions in the body. It is essential for the transmission of nerve impulses, detoxification reactions, and for the formation of healthy bones and teeth, muscular activity, and temperature regulation. It is involved in energy production and the synthesis of DNA and RNA. The U.S. Department of Agriculture states that approximately 75 percent of Americans do not ingest the recommended dietary allowance of magnesium. Magnesium influences many of the activities associated with a wide variety of cardiac medications. For example, magnesium inhibits platelet aggregation, thins the blood, blocks calcium uptake, and relaxes blood vessels. Magnesium also oxygenates the blood of the heart muscle by improving cardiac contractility.

    Toxicities & Precautions

    General

  • The kidneys eliminate excess magnesium preventing toxicity.
  • Health Conditions

  • Individuals with kidney disease should consult with their physician before using a magnesium dietary supplement.
  • Side Effects

  • Excess ingestion of inorganic magnesium salts can cause diarrhea.
  • Functions in the Body

    Blood Pressure

  • Helps to lower elevated blood pressure by allowing blood vessels to relax. However, the effect is usually only moderate, and thus magnesium should not be viewed as a primary treatment for hypertension.
  • Bone

  • Involved in calcium metabolism, the integrity of skeletal bone-crystal formation, and the synthesis of vitamin D.
  • Cardiovascular Function

  • Magnesium influences multiple aspects of cardiovascular health. It blocks calcium uptake, decreases platelet stickiness, helps thin the blood, and relaxes blood vessels.
  • Heart Disease

  • Adequate magnesium intake reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and increases the survival rate following a heart attack. If intravenous magnesium is given during the early stages of a heart attack, it results in a 70 percent decline in deaths within one month following the event.
  • Metabolism

  • Required for the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, as well as activity related to calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin C. It is vital for the health of nervous and muscular tissues everywhere in the body.
  • Teeth

  • Magnesium helps to bind calcium to tooth enamel, creating a barrier to tooth decay.
  • Symptoms & Causes of Deficiency

    Although clinical deficiency is rare in the U.S., marginal deficiency appears to be widespread it has been shown that approximately 75 percent of Americans ingest less than the recommended daily allowance. Deficiency symptoms include: anxiety, confusion, depression, fatigue, fear, gastrointestinal disorders, high blood pressure, insomnia, irritability, kidney stones, loss of appetite, muscle cramps, nervousness, osteoporosis, restlessness, and weakness. It is now known that many heart attacks occur in people with healthy hearts. Magnesium deficiency increases calcium/magnesium ratio, which can cause a cardiac muscle spasm resulting in a heart attack, and death. Magnesium is important for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Magnesium deficiency is associated with increased incidence of atherosclerosis, heart attacks, hypertension, and stroke. Low levels of magnesium can cause constriction of the blood vessels throughout the body, which elevates blood pressure and can cause a contraction or spasm in the heart muscle, possibly resulting in sudden death.

    Methylsulfonylmethane

    Found in Joint Health supplements.

    General Info

    Absorption

  • MSM is easily absorbed both orally and topically.
  • Dietary Origins

  • Trace amounts of MSM occur in animals, humans, and plants.
  • Overview

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a natural form of organic sulfur, which occurs in meats and plants including fruits and vegetables. It is naturally produced in the human body, and used to promote wound healing and may play a role in easing pain and inflammation associated with arthritis, osteoporosis, joint and muscle pain, bursitis, and tendonitis. It provides an important source of sulfur, which animals, plants, and humans need for biochemical processes. Although MSM occurs naturally in foods, even moderate food processing easily destroys it.

    Toxicities & Precautions

    Side Effects

  • Large doses of MSM may cause mild gastrointestinal discomfort, more frequent stools, or an occasional headache.
  • Functions in the Body

    Anti-inflammatory Agent

  • MSM reduces redness, heat, swelling, pain, and the loss of function associated with inflamed tissues or body parts.
  • Pain Relief

  • MSM can relieve pain through the following ways; it inhibits pain impulses along type C nerve fibers, reduces inflammation, which relieves pressure on nerves and tissues, promotes blood flow, which speeds up healing, and reduces muscle spasms
  • Sulfur

  • It is a source of biological sulfur, a major component in the body’s many, connective tissues, proteins, hormones, and enzymes. Portions of the detoxification mechanisms in the liver require adequate supplies of sulfur.
  • Symptoms & Causes of Deficiency

    No specific condition has been identified with a deficiency of MSM. However, the wide variety of conditions that reportedly respond to MSM such as scarring, adhesions, scar tissue caused by arthritic joins, gingivitis, joint and muscle pain, inflammation, and tendonitis, may be related to the role it plays in correcting a sulfur deficiency in many people.

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine

    NAC is an essential component of Olivamine 10 Max and found in all McCord Supplements. The highest dose is found in Detox Support

    General Info

    Absorption

  • N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine (NAC) is easily absorbed from the intestinal tract.
  • Dietary Origins

  • NAC does not occur in foods. Its amino acid precursor, L-cysteine, occurs in most high-protein foods.
  • Overview

    NAC is a derivative of the amino acid, L-cysteine, a building block of protein. The activity of NAC is linked to its conversion to glutathione, a potent antioxidant. Glutathione plays a central role in some of the body’s most important antioxidant pathways, and NAC supplementation is the best way to increase levels of glutathione. NAC has been used to protect the liver from pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen) and has been shown to help the body detoxify a wide range of pollutants such as auto exhaust, certain fungicides, cigarette smoke, and some toxic metals through improving phase II detoxification enzymes in the liver.

    Toxicities & Precautions

    General

  • NAC is considered very safe. When NAC is used at high doses, over 20 grams a day, to treat acetaminophen poisoning, urinary zinc excretion may occur, in which case it may be necessary to monitor zinc and copper levels.
  • Side Effects

  • Although side effects are very rare, varying degrees of nausea, vomiting, headache, dry mouth, dizziness, or abdominal pain may occur with high doses.
  • Functions in the Body

    Antioxidant

  • NAC acts as an antioxidant. NAC is the direct precursor of glutathione, which is also a part of the body’s innate antioxidant defense system.
  • Heavy Metal Detoxifier

  • NAC is able to combine and detoxify heavy metal toxins such as mercury and arsenic.
  • Symptoms & Causes of Deficiency

    N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine is not an essential nutrient for humans and a deficiency condition has not been identified. However, based on what is know about NAC’s functions in the body, it could be speculated that a deficiency could result in decreased glutathione levels, increased inability to detoxify heavy metal toxins, elevated lipoprotein, and increased risk of hydrogen peroxide damage. Low levels of glutathione as well as heavy metal toxicity and free radical damage have been linked to a wide variety of degenerative disorders.

    Proline

    L-Proline is an essential ingredient of Olivamine 10 Max, therefore included in all McCord Supplements

    General Info

    Absorption

  • L-Proline is readily absorbed from within the small intestine.
  • Dietary Origins

  • L-Proline is produced by glutamic acid within the body. It can also be found in natural sources of meat, dairy and eggs.
  • Overview

    Proline is one of the twenty common amino acids that forms proteins and is the only cyclic amino acid. The “L” in front of its name denotes the active form of proline. Amino acids are essential to life and the human body is reliant on proper dietary intake to survive. It is contained within cartilage, and is essential for proper maintenance of collagen.

    Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the important role that L-proline plays in DNA synthesis. L-proline is also necessary for the proper function of other proteins such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) that does not function in the absence of L-proline. L-proline deficient tissue-culture media such as Leibovitz’s L-15, Eagle’s minimal essential did not induce DNA synthesis. However, using culture media such as Williams E, McCoy’s 5A and Ham’s F-12, which are rich in L-proline, there was DNA synthesis and marked cellular proliferation.

    Toxicities & Precautions

    General

  • There are no known toxicities or precautions associated with proline.Side Effects
  • There are no known side effects related to the use of proline in supplemental use.
  • Functions in the Body

    Collagen

  • Proline and lysine, another amino acid, are both needed to make hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, two amino acids that form collagen. Improper production of collagen has been linked to genetic disorders that result in joint and spine problems.
  • Cellular Health

  • Helps the body break down proteins for use in creating healthy cells throughout the body.
  • Immune System

  • It is a necessary amino acid for a healthy immune system.
  • Symptoms & Causes of Deficiency

    Proline is naturally produced within the human body. As the human body grows older levels may become diminished, resulting in debilitating bone and joint disorders. A deficiency of proline within the body may result in a weakened immune system, joint and spine disorders, and increased cell death.

    Soluble Fiber (Digestion-Resistant Maltodextrin)

    Found in: Pinnaclife Prebiotic Fiber

    General Info

    Absorption

  • Digestion-resistant maltodextrin is a type of soluble dietary fiber that does not get absorbed.
  • Dietary Origins

  • Foods that are rich in soluble fiber include apples, carrots, citrus fruits, grains such as barley, legumes, and oat bran and oatmeal, oats, onions, pears, squash, and sweet potatoes. Foods high in insoluble fiber include barley, flaxseeds, most other grains, potatoes, rice, rye, wheat bran, wheat cereals, whole-wheat breads, vegetables such as beets, brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, and turnips.
  • Overview

    Dietary fiber is a general term that refers to a wide variety of compounds from plants that are resistant to the digestive enzymes produced in the body. Because dietary fiber is resistant to digestive enzymes, it is not broken down or absorbed, which means it does not provide calories or energy to the body. In general, dietary fibers are various forms of complex carbohydrates that have varying abilities to swell by absorbing water into their structural matrix. Fibers that can actually dissolve in water, such as pectin, gums, and digestion-resistant maltodextrin are referred to as soluble fiber. Insoluble fibers or roughage cannot dissolve in water but they can absorb water. This causes them to swell, making them good bulking agents, which speeds up intestinal transit time and improves elimination. Examples of insoluble fibers are cellulose, psyllium husk, hemicelluloses, and lignins. Soluble fiber mixes with water, turning into a gel-like substance in the process as it passes through the gastrointestinal tract. Soluble fibers have a moderate cholesterol-lowering effect and they also slow the absorption of glucose from the intestines and help regulate blood sugar levels. When the non-digestible fibers reach the colon, anaerobic bacteria degrade them in a process called fermentation. This process produces byproducts known as short-chain fatty acids, which help maintain proper acid/base balance in the colon and may also play a role in the prevention of colorectal cancer. In general, high fiber diets are associated with significantly reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all causes of mortality. It is generally recommended that Americans should strive to achieve a total dietary fiber intake of 25 to 30 grams/day.

    Toxicities & Precautions

    General

  • There are no known toxicities or precautions associated with taking fiber.
  • Side Effects

  • Ingesting large amounts of fiber within a short period of time can cause some individuals to experience minor side effects such as gas, bloating and intestinal cramps. These symptoms may be avoided by always gradually increasing the amount of fiber in ones diet.
  • Functions in the Body

    Dietary fiber

  • Dietary fiber contributes bulk to the intestinal content, in both wet weight and volume. As well as helping to speed up fecal transit time.
  • Fiber-rich diets

  • Fiber-rich diets generally help to improve the regulation of blood sugar. They also help provide feelings of “fullness” when eating, giving it a key function in dieting and weight control.
  • Soluble fibers

  • Soluble fibers help regulate the metabolism of lipoproteins and cholesterol, which helps to lower LDL-cholesterol levels. Soluble types of dietary fiber are capable of binding to bile acids, and other toxic substances, which decreases the interaction of these compounds with the colonic tissues.
  • Prebiotic Fiber

  • Prebiotic fiber serves as a food source for healthy intestinal bacteria, called probiotics. These bacteria are vital for digesting food and absorbing key nutrients and can also help reduce inflammation throughout the body. Probiotic bacteria are also known to play a vital role in brain health, metabolic disease, and immune health.
  • Symptoms & Causes of Deficiency

    A lack of fiber is usually the result of poor food choices, which results in a diet that is deficient in fiber-containing foods. Consuming a diet lacking in fiber increases the risk of developing gastrointestinal problems such as constipation, diarrhea, irritable bowel, inflammation, diverticular disorders, hemorrhoids, indigestion, and poor nutrient absorption. It can also contribute to metabolic disturbances such as alterations in glycemic control, inability to manage weight, and elevated cholesterol and triglycerides.

    Taurine

    Taurine is an essential component of Olivamine 10 Max, therefore found in all McCord Supplements

    General Info

    Absorption

  • Taurine undergoes digestion in the stomach and is absorbed from the small intestine.
  • Dietary Origins

  • Fish and meat are the best food sources for taurine. Humans, except for infants, are able to make taurine from another essential amino acid methionine.
  • Overview

    Taurine is an essential amino acid, which is important for optimal health. Tuarine is readily available in diets that contain foods from animal sources. The body also produces taurine in the process of breaking down other amino acids, but under certain conditions some individuals are not able to make enough taurine, making it an essential nutrient for those people. Taurine is essential for pre-term and newborn infants because they have not yet developed the enzyme system that allows them to produce taurine. Thus, taurine is an essential nutrient for infants. Taurine is concentrated in parts of the body that have high electrical activity such as the, brain, eye, and heart.

    Toxicities & Precautions

    General

  • There is no known toxicity or precaution associated with taurine.
  • Functions in the Body

    Absorption and Excretion

  • Taurine is a component of bile acids and as such it helps regulate the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Bile acids are also important for eliminating some waste products, metabolites, and toxins.
  • Cardiovascular functions

  • Taurine helps regulate blood pressure, cardiac contraction, heart rhythm, and platelet aggregation.
  • Detoxifying Agent

  • Taurine is a detoxifying agent that helps protect liver cells against toxins.
  • Inhibitory Neurotransmitter

  • Taurine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps to stabilize nerve cell membranes.
  • Symptoms & Causes of Deficiency

    In pre-term and term infants, taurine deficiency results in bile acid secretion, impaired fat absorption, liver malfunction, and vision disturbances, all of which can be reversed by taurine supplementation. Based on what is known about taurine it could also be speculated that a deficiency could result in elevated blood viscosity, neurodegenerative disorders, impaired brain function/cognition, and impaired cardiac function.

    Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

    Vitamin B3 is an essential part of Olivamine 10 Max, therefore found in all McCord Supplements.

    General Info

    Absorption

  • Niacin is absorbed from the stomach, and both niacin and niacinamide are absorbed from the small intestine. Both niacin and niacinamide are transposed to coenzymes in the kidney, blood, brain, and liver.
  • Dietary Origins

  • The following are excellent sources of niacin; brewer’s yeast, fish, lean meats, legumes, milk, organ meats, peanut butter, peanuts, and poultry.
  • Overview

    Vitamin B3 is a water-soluble B vitamin that exists as two forms, niacin and niacinamide. Niacin plays an essential role in over 200 chemical reactions in the body. These two forms work independently in many cases, but are both necessary for treating the vitamin B3 deficiency known as pellagra. Observed for centuries as a disease of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and central nervous system, pellagra progresses from an indentifying dermatitis to diarrhea, dementia, and eventually death. Affected population’s consumed a diet low in protein and high in corn. Niacin, which is also known as nicotinic acid, lowers elevated blood lipids and may reduce mortality. In addition to being used alone, it has also been used in combination with cholesterol-lowering drugs to increase the lipid-lowering effects. Niacinamide, which is also known as nicotinamide has been used to treat newly diagnosed patients with type I diabetes, patients with type II and people with arthritis.

    Toxicities & Precautions

    General

  • There are no known toxicities or precautions associated with niacin when used at recommended daily doses.
  • Side Effects

  • Larger doses can cause side effects such as flushing of the skin, and head throbbing, and elevated liver enzymes. These side effects are typically only seen at prescription strength doses that are only recommended under the supervision of a physician.
  • Functions in the Body

    Blood Cholesterol Levels

  • Reduces LDL and triglycerides, and increases HDL.
  • Energy Production

  • Reduces oxidation damage by involving the production of energy from carbohydrates.
  • Heart Attacks

  • May help reduce repotting rate for heart attacks.
  • Metabolism

  • Help metabolism process amino acids, carbohydrates, and fatty acids.
  • Symptoms & Causes of Deficiency

    Severe deficiency is known as pellagra, a disease of the skin, gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system. Pellagra progresses from an identifying dermatitis to diarrhea, dementia, and eventually death. This disease occurs in areas where diets are low in protein and high in corn. In the gastrointestinal tract, the deficiency can cause inflammation of the mucous membranes, leading to digestive abnormalities including swollen tongue and diarrhea. A severe deficiency can affect the nervous system causing mental confusion and disorientation. Based on what is known about vitamin B3 it may also be speculated that a deficiency may cause increase destruction of pancreatic beta cells, cataracts, risk of arthritis, and elevated cholesterol levels.

    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

    Vitamin B6 is an essential component of Olivamine 10 Max, therefore found in all McCord Supplements

    General Info

    Absorption

  • Vitamin B6 is easily absorbed in the intestines.
  • Dietary Origins

  • The best sources of pyridoxine are bananas, brewer’s yeast, legumes, organ meats, peanuts, potatoes, and wheat germ. Intestinal flora (beneficial bacteria that inhabit the intestinal tract) also synthesize Vitamin B6.
  • Overview

    Vitamin B6/Pyridoxine is a water-soluble B vitamin that is required within the body for many processes. More than one hundred enzyme reactions may be dependent on vitamin B6, therefore its role in the body is very diverse. Several activities are related to the metabolism of amino acids and other proteins. Because vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin, like the reset of its family, replenishment is necessary, even though there is some storage in muscle.

    Toxicities & Precautions

    General

  • At recommended doses, there are no known toxicities or precautions.
  • Side Effects

  • Vitamin B6 can be poisonous to nerve tissue when taken in large doses. Symptoms may include tingling in the hands, and decreased muscle coordination. Recovery occurs without problems after reducing intake of vitamin B6.
  • Functions in the Body

    Energy Production

  • Required for the conversion of glycogen to glucose needed for energy production.
  • Niacin Conversion

  • It is essential for the conversion of tryptophan, an essential amino acid to niacin, a crystalline acid, used in the treatment of pellagra.
  • Red Blood Cells

  • Vitamin B6 is necessary for the formation of hemoglobin, the oxygen carrying pigment of red blood cells, and the growth of red blood cells.
  • Serotonin

  • Involved in the synthesis of serotonin a neurotransmitter that is involved in sleep, depression, memory, and other neurological processes.
  • Symptoms & Causes of Deficiency

    Vitamin B6 deficiency has been proven to be one of the most common vitamin deficiencies, which is to a degree due to the large amounts that are lost during cooking and food processing. The symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiencies take place primarily as circulatory, dermatologic, and neurologic problems. Because of its many metabolic roles, there are a large variety of deficiency symptoms, which include the following: anemia, altered mobility, decreased alertness, depression, elevated homocysteine, lethargy, nausea, nerve inflammation, PMS, dermatitis, sleep disturbances, and vomiting.

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

    Vitamin B12 can be found in Brain Health, Energy Support, Mood Support, and Pinnaclife MultiVitamin

    General Info

    Absorption

  • Vitamin B12 is first released by digestive enzyme activity, and is then transported to the liver where it is stored. The small amount that is not stored is absorbed within the small intestine.
  • Dietary Origins

  • Vitamin B12 is produced within the digestive tract of animals. Making animal protein products a rich source of this nutrient. It does not occur in fruits, vegetables, or grains. Vitamin B12 may also found in beef, cheese, chicken, clams, eggs, milk, and oysters.
  • Overview

    Vitamin B12 is the name given to a group of naturally occurring compounds referred to as cobalamins. Cobalamin is the generic name of vitamin B12 because it contains the heavy metal cobalt, which gives this water-soluble vitamin its red color. Vitamin B12 is an essential for growth and plays an important role in the metabolism of cells, especially those found in bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, and nervous tissue. Because the body doesn’t produce vitamin B12 dietary intake is essential, and animal products are the primary food sources. In the stomach, a mediator called Intrinsic Factor or IF is required to carry vitamin B12 from food into the bloodstream. Without intrinsic factor or adequate stomach acid, only a small percentage of vitamin B12 is absorbed. Once absorbed, relatively large amounts of vitamin B12 can be stored in the liver. Vitamin B12 is required for the normal function of all cells.

    Toxicities & Precautions

    General

    There are no known toxicities or precautions associated with vitamin B12.

    Functions in the Body

    Biochemical Pathways

  • Primarily functions as a methyl donor, and is necessary in the synthesis of DNA and facilitating the conversion of homocysteine to methionine.
  • Hydrogen Carrier

  • Behaves as a hydrogen carrier in hydrogen transfer processes.
  • Metabolism

  • Involved in various components of protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism.
  • Nervous System

  • Required for the synthesis the insulation around nerves. Also plays a major role in the functioning of the nervous system.
  • Red Blood Cells

    Symptoms & Causes of Deficiency

    Vitamin B12 deficiencies are shown commonly as anemia and neurological changes. Deficiency prevents DNA synthesis, which affects the growth and repair rate of all cells. The symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency also include: abnormally enlarged red blood cells, confusion and memory loss, depression, dermatitis and skin sensitivity, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, neuropathy, poor blood clotting and easy bruising, tongue and mouth irregularities. The elderly are at highest risk of a vitamin B12 deficiency. B12 deficiency is also associated with elevated blood levels of homocysteine, which is linked to increased risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Deficiencies in the elderly may include the following: abnormal gait, confusion, delusions, dementia, dizziness, memory loss, and moodiness. Meatless diets are deficient in vitamin B12. Strict vegetarians should be advised to use a vitamin B12 supplement.

    Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol)

    Found in Brain Health, Sleep Support, Mood Support, Energy Support, Joint Health, Multivitamin, and D3+Magnesium

    General Info

    Absorption

  • Vitamin D is absorbed with the use of bile from both the middle portion and lowest division of the small intestine.
  • Dietary Origins

  • Vitamin D is actually a hormone produced naturally in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight. It does not occur in large amounts in many foods. It occurs in small and highly variable amounts in supplemented butter, cream, and milk. Milk fortified with vitamin D is the major source of this vitamin within the United States, however you would need to drink an unhealthy amount of milk every day to get the amount of Vitamin D needed for optimum health, so supplements are a preferred dietary source. Some plants and mushrooms contain the less potent Vitamin D2, however this form is not active and must first be converted to D3 for your body to benefit.
  • Overview

    The term “Vitamin D” refers to a group of fat-soluble hormones that serve a wide variety of biological functions including maintenance of appropriate blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D interacts with a specific Vitamin D receptor found on the nucleus of most cells on your body, and this interaction directly affects the way certain genes are expressed, including those vital for immune function. Of the different form of vitamin D – vitamin D3/Cholecalciferol is the most potent form. Not available in many foods, vitamin D can be manufactured by the body through the skin by virtue of a reaction with sunlight.

    Toxicities & Precautions

    General

  • Vitamin D can be toxic in excessive amounts by causing high blood levels of calcium (hypercalcemia) that can cause muscle spasms, arythmmias, and calcium deposits in soft tissues such as arteries, heart, ears, kidneys and lungs. Signs of vitamin D toxicity include constipation, headache, nausea, vomiting, and weakness.
  • Functions in the Body

    Bones

  • Involved in both the mineralization of bone, as well as in the de-mineralization of bone.
  • Immune System

  • Vitamin D enhances the immune system by stimulating the activity of large white blood cells. This effect is not only important in preventing infections but has also demonstrated positive effects in cancer prevention.
  • Neuromuscular

  • Vitamin D may play a role in neuromuscular function in older adults.
  • Symptoms & Causes of Deficiency

    Rickets is a childhood vitamin D deficiency disease. Insufficient deposition of calcium into the bone matrix creates bones that are not strong enough to withstand the ordinary stresses and strains of weight. In adults, vitamin D deficiency can result in osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Vitamin D deficiency can result from inadequate diet, insufficient exposure to sunlight (clothing, sunscreen, time spent indoors, winter months, geographical location, skin pigmentation), and kidney or liver malfunctions, which prevent the conversion of vitamin D within the body. Osteoporosis increases the risk of skeletal fractures. Osteomalacia is the adult equivalent of rickets where vitamin D deficiency causes softening of the bones that can lead to deformities. This condition occurs more frequently in the elderly. It can cause muscle weakness, rheumatic pain, and increases the likelihood of hip and pelvis fractures. Vitamin D deficiencies have also been linked to depression, neurodegenerative disorders, heart disease, cancer, obesity, immunodeficiency, hearing loss, muscle weakness, phosphorus retention in the kidneys, and severe tooth decay.